This survey is intended to give the reader a basic idea of the nature of Livonian grammar. Unless otherwise noted, examples are taken from Līvõ kēļ (Boiko 2000) and the Livonian-Estonian-Latvian dictionary (Viitso & Ernštreits 2012). The basic text is taken from Pētõr Damberg’s Jemakīel lugdõbrāntõz skūol ja kuod pierast (Mother Tongue Reading Book for School and Home), however, the translation is my own. The expressions at the end of this section are taken from the Latvian-Livonian-English Phrase Book by Valda Šuvcāne. The section on stød is taken directly, with some small changes, from Balodis 2008:12–14.
As stated elsewhere on this site, Livonian is a Finnic language. Livonian shares a number of features with its closest relatives. Like other Finnic languages, primary stress in Livonian generally occurs on the first syllable of each word. Length is distinguished in Livonian for vowels, consonants, and some diphthongs and triphthongs. Though vowel harmony is a feature of many Finnic languages (Finnish, Vote, South Estonian, etc.), it is absent in Livonian. Like its Finnic relatives, Livonian has an extensive system of noun cases (discussed further below). However, the use of the external locative cases (ablative, adessive, allative) is somewhat more limited in Livonian compared to their use in other Finnic languages. Livonian also shows some interesting innovations, including a dative case. Like other Finnic languages historically in contact with Latvian, including Krevin Vote (historically spoken near Bauska) and the Leivu and Lutsi South Estonian language islands of eastern Latvia, Livonian has a prosodic feature called “stød” or the “broken tone” (discussed below). Of these language, this system of tonal opposition was the most extensive in Livonian where stød developed into a lexical contrast, while in languages like Lutsi South Estonian, stød remained an occasional phenomenon resulting from the elision of intervocalic glottal consonants. For a detailed discussion and more information on the sound systems of the dialects of Livonian, see Tuisk 2016. For information on stød in Lutsi and Leivu, see Balodis et al. 2016.
Kurzeme (Courland) Livonian has a Western and Eastern dialect with a transitional dialect having been spoken in the village of Īra (Lielirbe). This dialect division is said to have arisen from a historical division of the Livonian Coast between two different manor territories. The modern Livonian literary language is based on the Eastern Livonian dialect. The map below shows the Livonian dialect division.
Stød is the term used to refer to the lexical pitch accent feature in Livonian. Sounding much like the Latvian broken intonation and Danish stød, from where the name derives in Livonian linguistic scholarship (Thomsen 1890:59), stød is a contrastive feature in Livonian and the only example of lexical pitch accent to be found in any currently spoken Balto-Finnic language.
The extinct Krevin dialect of Votic, also a Finnic language, may have had a prosodic feature similar to stød. Krevin was spoken near the southern Latvian city of Bauska and became extinct in the latter half of the nineteenth century. As no sound recordings of Krevin exist, it is impossible to be certain that it indeed possessed pitch accent, though Winkler (1997:225–237) posits that Krevin had a system making a two-way or three-way pitch accent distinction.
Studies have also been carried out examining the perception that the three vowel quantities of Estonian are associated with unique pitch contours, as it has been claimed in the past that pitch rather than quantity is the primary factor in differentiating among the three vowel lengths. However, it was shown by Lehiste (1960:60–62) that these pitch contours were associated with complete utterances rather than particular words and that in Estonian “pitch does not contribute an indispensable clue for assignment of a word into a quantity category.“
Kiparsky (2006:4) gives the following summary of the theories concerning the origin of stød: “Kettunen and Vihman suggest that stød first arose as a reflex of h in words like raha > ro’o ‘money’. And, in line with a popular account of Danish stød, Posti suggests that it developed as a glottal stop from rising pitch which arose when the following syllable was lost. On Wiik’s (1989) account, stød arose by phonologization of syllable boundaries, though he is non-committal about exactly what phonological entitites the syllable boundaries were phonologized as.”
Kiparsky (2006:1) describes the distribution of Livonian stød as follows: “The Livonian stød appears on stressed VV or VC syllables, where C is a voiced consonant (the same configuration as the “stød base” of Danish)… Stød is constrastive on stressed CVV and CVVC syllables, in monosyllabic as well as polysyllabic words. It is also constrastive on stressed nonfinal CVC syllables.” As stød can only occur in heavy syllables, syllables with stød are not treated separately in the current study. In the Eastern Livonian dialect a stød-like pitch contour can also occur on half-long vowels in even-numbered syllables. (Kettunen 1925:5–6, Posti 1942:XIX) This pitch contour, however, is not contrastive.
A short series of stød/non-stød minimal pairs given by Kiparsky (2006:2) is reproduced below. (Note: The transcription used by Kiparsky has been modified to match the standard Livonian orthography. As is customary in Livonian linguistic scholarship, stød is marked with an apostrophe in the syllable where it occurs.) For more in depth information on and experimentation relating to stød, see the Lehiste et al. 2008 monography “Livonian prosody” and Vihman’s 1971 experimental study of stød in Danish and Livonian.
Stød minimal pairs (Kiparsky 2006:2)
|lēḑ ‘sphere’||lē’ḑ ‘leaf’|
|nīņ ‘bark strip’||nī’ņ ‘wide belt’|
|mō ‘earth’||mō’ ‘down; earthwards’|
|ūdõ ‘to fry’||ū’dõ ‘to strain’|
|pūstõ ‘tree (elat. sg.)’||pū’stõ ‘to clean’|
|pūgõ ‘to hang (execute)’||pū’gõ ‘to blow’|
|jūodõ ‘to drink’||jū’odõ ‘to lead’|
|kallõ ‘island (part. sg.)’||ka’llõ ‘fish (part. sg.)’|
|kuonnõ ‘frog (part. sg.)’||kuo’nnõ ‘at home’|
|vannõ ‘to swear’||va’nnõ ‘old (part. sg.)’|
|pallõ ‘to pray’||pa’llõ ‘piece (part. sg.)’|
Livonian, just as its Finnic relatives, does not distinguish grammatical gender for nouns or pronouns. This means that unlike in many Indo-European languages, there are no affixes or other special words (such as articles) associated with Livonian nouns, which specifically indicate the gender of the referent. Therefore, words like student ‘student’, līvli ‘a Livonian person’, and lețli ‘a Latvian person’ can refer to either a male or female individual. However, there are, of course, plenty of nouns in Livonian, which inherently distinguish gender just by the virtue of the information within the word itself, for example, nai ‘woman; wife’ vs. mīez ‘man; husband’, kēņig ‘king’ vs. kēņigjemānd ‘queen’; kanā ‘hen’ vs. kik ‘rooster’; etc.
Livonian is typical of other Finnic languages in that it has a large number of noun cases. Compared to the case systems of its close relatives among the Finnic languages, the Livonian case system appears somewhat reduced. In her article, “Latviešu un lībiešu valodas savstarpējā ietekme” (Mutual Influence between Latvian and Livonian), linguist Marta Rudzīte (1994) largely attributes this simplification to the influence of Latvian on Livonian. This is especially noticeable in the simplification of locative expressions, as well as, the combination of the once independent translative and comitative cases into a single case, the instrumental.
Viitso & Ernštreits (2012:393–4) give as many as 17 noun cases for Livonian. 8–9 of these cases can be formed consistently for most nouns (nominative, genitive, partitive, dative, instrumental, translative (often grouped together with the instrumental as a single case), illative, inessive, elative) and 3 further cases (ablative, adessive, allative) are formed for some place names (e.g., (adessive) Lețmōl ‘in Latvia’, (allative) Ēstimōld ‘from Estonia’) or found in other locative expressions. The remaining cases (instructive, abessive, lative, essive, exessive) are not formed for nouns in general and exist in a limited range of words and frozen expressions. Instructive, lative, essive, and exessive forms function as adverbs. A commonly cited example of the instructive case is jālgiņ ‘by foot’ (< jālga ‘foot; leg’). Taking all of this into account, one can therefore say that typically there are 8–9 or occasionally as many as 11–12 cases for nouns in Livonian. The tables below shows two examples of declined nouns.
līvli ‘a Livonian person’
Singular case forms (with the exception of the partitive and illative singulars) and the nominative and genitive plural forms (which are identical to each other) are formed by attaching a case ending to the genitive singular case form. The partitive and illative singular, while showing a multitude of different patterns within each case itself, are not regular in the sense that they are not formed by attaching an ending to a particular noun root. The endings given for these two cases in the table below are those typically seen at the end of partitive and illative singular nouns, but are not to be understood as endings attached to the same genitive root as is done for other singular noun cases. The table below is reproduced from Viitso & Ernštreits 2012:393–4 with the table labels translated by me from Latvian. Viitso & Ernštreits note that the sounds given in parentheses (e.g., õ in forms such as inessive -s(õ), z in illative -õ(z)) were pronounced based on a variety of criteria including sentence position and preceding sound, but were more likely to be pronounced in the eastern Livonian dialect area in the region between Kuoštrõg (Košrags) and Vaid (Vaide), which was characterized by more conservatism in its morphology.
Livonian Noun Case Endings (Viitso & Ernštreits 2012:393–4)
|Nominative||—||-t -d -õd|
|Genitive||—||-t -d -õd|
|Partitive||-tā -dā -ța -ta -da -tõ -dõ -õ —||-ți -ḑi -ti -di -i|
|Dative||-n -õn||-ddõn -dõn -tõn -õdõn|
|Instrumental||-kõks -ks -õks||-dkõks -tkõks -dõks -tõks|
|Illative||-zõ -(õ)z||-ži -īž -iž -ž -īz -iz|
|Inessive||-š(õ) -s(õ) -õs(õ)||-ši -īs -is|
|Elative||-št(õ) -st(õ) -õst(õ)||-šti -īst -ist|
Due to the large variation in case endings and also variation within particular cases, such as the aforementioned partitive, Livonian nouns are grouped into several hundred declension types. Each type describes the exact way in which nouns in that group are declined for all cases and each group is assigned a unique numerical index, which appears in dictionaries alongside each noun. The same method is used for describing the similarly complex declension systems of Estonian (e.g., Saagpakk 2000) and Võro (South Estonian) (e.g., Faster 2014). The most comprehensive and extensive description of Livonian declension types can be found Viitso & Ernštreits 2012 as well as in the dictionary’s online version.
Livonian Noun Case Functions
|Noun Case||Function and/or Meaning||Associated questions|
|Nominative||The subject of a sentence will generally appear in this case.||what? who?|
|Genitive||This case expresses possession and is also used with a number of adpositions. The genitive can be used as a direct object case (as a “total object”). In that function, a genitive object can indicate that the action of the verb is perfective. For many, but not all, nouns, the nominative and genitive forms are the same.||whose? (possession)
what? whom? (direct object)
|Partitive||This case is used as the direct object case in Livonian as well as with a number of adpositions. In its function as a direct object case, the partitive is used in general with negated verbs and with verbs indicating emotional or mental states. In other situations, a partitive object (as a “partial object”) can indicate that the action described by the verb is imperfective.||what? whom?|
|Dative||This case is used as the indirect object case. Livonian lacks a verb meaning ‘to have’ and the dative is used to indicate the possessor in the corresponding construction. For example: |
Mi’nnõn u’m rǭntõz.
1SG.DAT be.3 book
‘I have a book’ (lit. to me is a book)
|Instrumental||In its comitative function, used in the places where English would use the preposition ‘with’. In older works, the instrumental is referred to as the translative-comitative.||with what?
|Translative||When analyzed as a separate case in Livonian, the translative indicates a change of state. For example:|
Ȭ’dõg ētab pi’mdõks.
evening become.3SG dark.TRANSL
‘The evening is becoming dark.’
(example from Viitso & Ernštreits 2012 online version)
|Illative||The illative refers to movement to or into something or somewhere.||to where? into what?|
|Inessive||The inessive refers to the state of being inside of something or somewhere.||Where?|
|Elative||The elative refers to movement from or out of something or somewhere.||from where? out of what?|
|Instructive||This case can only be formed for a limited amount of words and results in adverbs indicating the manner in which something is done. (e.g., jālgiņ ‘by foot’)||how? in what manner?|
|Allative, Adessive, Ablative||The three external locative cases, answer the questions, “to where?”, “where?”, and “from where?”, respectively. Nowadays these three cases only appear in a limited number of forms, largely place names. In my own experience of hearing spoken Livonian, I found that sometimes the internal locative cases (illative, inessive, elative) would be used instead of the external locatives, even for place names and other situations that would seem to suggest the use of an external locative. Linguist Marta Rudzīte (1994:307) characterizes these changes as part of a larger collapse of this intricate system of locatives. This is attributed by her largely to the influence of Latvian, which, unlike Livonian, has only one productive locative case.||to where? onto what? (allative)
where? at/on what? (adessive)
from where? off of what? (ablative)
|Abessive||Viitso & Ernštreits (2012:394) state that the abessive is used in monosyllables with vowel stems and in conjunction with either the preposition ilmõ or bäs, both of which mean ‘without’. They note that the partitive is usually used instead of the abessive.||without what?
|(Translative), Essive, Exessive||According to Viitso & Ernštreits (2012:394), the endings for the rare essive and exessive cases are found in certain adverbs in Livonian referring to place and time.|
The essive and exessive form a “to/in/from” case triplet with the translative in a way, which is analogous to the triplets formed by the illative, inessive, elative and allative, adessive, ablative.
The translative indicates a transition to a state, the essive indicates existence within a certain state of being (e.g., this can be seen in the Finnish essive form lapsena ‘as a child’), and the exessive indicates transition away from a state. As stated previously, of these, only the translative can be considered a productive case in Livonian.
|Lative||As with the essive and exessive, the lative is only found in adverbs relating to time and location. The lative is not productive, but is associated with locative meanings.|
Pronouns and Question Words
Livonian pronouns are declined according to case. The table below shows the declined forms of the Livonian personal pronouns. Note that the nominative singular pronouns have a long form (minā, sinā, tämā) and a short form (ma, sa, ta). The plural form of the pronoun/determiner se ‘it, this, that’ (and its declined forms) is ne (and its declined forms). No gender distinction exists for third person pronouns. Therefore, the singular forms (tämā, ta) are equivalent to either ‘she’ or ‘he’ in Livonian. Similarly, the plural form (ne) is also equally applicable to groups of third person referents regardless of their gender. The information in the table is drawn from Viitso & Ernštreits 2012, Boiko 2000, and Kettunen 1938 (to check the inessive forms).
|First Person||Second Person||Third Person||First Person||Second Person||Third Person|
|Nominative||ma ~ minā ‘I’||sa ~ sinā ‘you’||ta ~ tämā ‘s/he’||se ‘it, this, that’||mēg ‘we’||tēg ‘you (pl.)’||ne ‘they’|
Question words are also declined according to case. In Livonian, as in other Finnic languages, there are two series of question words differentiated by animacy. Question words derived from kis are used for living beings and those derived from mis are used for inanimate objects. This is roughly the same as the distinction in English between who and what. The forms in the table below are taken from Viitso & Ernštreits 2012 and Vääri 1994:274 (the forms kīngazõ, missõz). The inessive plural form kīenši was not explicitly given in either source and just interpreted by me to be the correct form based on the forms in the declension type table in Viitso & Ernštreits 2012. There are no plural forms for mis.
Livonian Question Words
|Nominative||kis ‘who’||mis ‘what’|
|Genitive||kīen ~ kīnga||kīend||mis|
|Partitive||kīenta ~ kīenda||kīendi||midā ~ mis|
|Dative||kīen ~ kīngan||kīendõn||missõn|
|Instrumental||kīenkõks ~ kīngaks||kīendõks||missõks|
|Illative||kīenõ ~ kīngazõ||kīeniž||missõ|
Livonian has two tenses (past, present) and five moods (indicative, conditional, imperative, quotative, jussive). In addition, there also exist a number of compound tenses. Livonian lacks a morphological future tense. Instead, the present tense and the future tense verb līdõ ‘to be (in the future)’ are used when speaking about future events. The table below summarizes the endings of Livonian verbs across mood, tense, and person and is reproduced from Viitso & Ernštreits 2012:396 (with its labels translated from Latvian into English by me). Much as nouns are grouped into declension types, which identify the exact way in which a particular group of nouns is declined, verbs are grouped into conjugation types identifying the exact way in which particular groups of verbs are conjugated. In Livonian dictionaries, conjugation types are given as a numerical index with each verb entry.
Livonian Verb Endings by Mood, Tense, and Person (Viitso & Ernštreits 2012:396)
|Mood and Tense||Person||Singular||Plural|
|Indicative (present tense)||1||-b -õb —||-mõ -m -õm|
|2||-d -õd||-tõ -t -õt|
|3||-b -õb —||-bõd -õbõd -āt(õ)|
|Indicative (past tense)||1||-, (comma indicates palatalization of final consonant) -i -īz -iz -ž -kš||-,mõ -imõ -īzmõ -izmõ -žmõ -kšmõ|
|2||-,d -id -īzt -izt -žt -št||-,t(õ) -it(õ) -īzt(õ) -izt(õ) -žt(õ) -kšt(õ)|
|3||-, -id -īz -iz -ž -kš||-,t(õ) -it(õ) -īzt(õ) -izt(õ) -žt(õ) -kšt(õ)|
|Conditional||1||-ks -õks||-ksmõ -õksmõ|
|2||-kst -õkst||-kstõ -õkstõ|
|3||-ks -õks||-kstõ -õkstõ|
|Imperative||1||-gõm -õgõm -kkõm -kõm|
|2||—||-gīd -gid -õgid -kkõd -kõd|
|Quotative||1–3||-i -ji -iji||-id -jid -ijid|
|Jussive||1–3||-gõ -g |-õg -kkõ -kõ||-gõd -õgõd -kkõd -kõd|
As in the other Finnic languages, verbs in Livonian are negated using a special negative verb used in conjunction with a root form of the lexical verb. The Livonian negative verb is conjugated for tense and person. The tables below shows the affirmative and negative forms of lǟ’dõ ‘to go’ and lu’ggõ ‘to read’ in the present and past tense.
lǟ’dõ ‘to go’
|Present tense||First person||ma lǟ’b ‘I go’||mēg lǟ’mõ ‘we go’||ma ä’b lǟ’ ‘I don’t go’||mēg ä’b lǟ’mõ ‘we don’t go’|
|Second person||sa lǟ’d ‘you go’||tēg lǟ’tõ ‘you (pl.) go’||sa ä’d lǟ’ ‘you don’t go’||tēg ät lǟ’tõ ‘you (pl.) don’t go’|
|Third person||ta lǟ’b ‘s/he goes’||ne lǟ’bõd ‘they go’||ta ä’b lǟ’ ‘s/he doesn’t go’||ne ä’b lǟ’tõ ‘they don’t go’|
|Past tense||First person||ma lekš ‘I went’||mēg lekšmõ ‘we went’||ma i’z lǟ’ ‘I didn’t go’||mēg i’z lǟ’mõ ‘we didn’t go’|
|Second person||sa lekšt ‘you went’||tēg lekštõ ‘you (pl.) went’||sa i’zt lǟ’ ‘you didn’t go’||tēg i’zt lǟ’tõ ‘you (pl.) didn’t go’|
|Third person||ta lekš ‘s/he went’||ne lekštõ ‘they went’||ta i’z lǟ’ ‘s/he didn’t go’||ne i’zt lǟ’tõ ‘they didn’t go’|
lu’ggõ ‘to read’
|Present tense||First person||ma lugūb ‘I read’||mēg lu’ggõm ‘we read’||ma ä’b lu’g ‘I don’t read’||mēg ä’b lu’ggõm ‘we don’t read’|
|Second person||sa lugūd ‘you read’||tēg lu’ggõt ‘you (pl.) read’||sa ä’d lu’g ‘you don’t read’||tēg ät lu’ggõt ‘you (pl.) don’t read’|
|Third person||ta lugūb ‘s/he reads’||ne lu’ggõbõd ‘they read’||ta ä’b lu’g ‘s/he doesn’t read’||ne ä’b lu’ggõt ‘they don’t read’|
|Past tense||First person||ma lugīz ‘I read’||mēg lugīzmõ ‘we read’||ma i’z lu’g ‘I didn’t read’||mēg i’z lu’ggõm ‘we didn’t read’|
|Second person||sa lugīzt ‘you read||tēg lugīzt(õ) ‘you (pl.) read’||sa i’zt lu’g ‘you didn’t read’||tēg i’zt lu’ggõt ‘you (pl.) didn’t read’|
|Third person||ta lugīz ‘s/he read’||ne lugīzt(õ) ‘they read’||ta i’z lu’g ‘s/he didn’t read’||ne i’zt lu’ggõt ‘they didn’t read’|
In addition, the following table shows the affirmative and negative forms of the verb vȱlda ‘to be’ in the present and past tense as well as the present perfect tense. This is not an exhaustive list of forms for vȱlda (or for lǟ’dõ or lu’ggõ shown above). The present tense affirmative and negative forms of līdõ ‘to be (in the future)’ are also shown below.
vȱlda ‘to be’
|First Person||Second Person||Third Person||First Person||Second Person||Third Person|
|ma u’m ‘I am’||sa ūod ‘you are’||ta u’m ‘s/he is’||mēg ūomõ ‘we are’||tēg ūotõ ‘you (pl.) are’||ne attõ ‘they are’|
|ma ä’b ūo ‘I am not’||sa ä’d ūo ‘you are not’||ta ä’b ūo ‘s/he is not’||mēg ä’b ūomõ ‘we are not’||tēg ä’d ūotõ ‘you (pl.) are not’||ne ä’b ūotõ ‘they are not’|
|ma vȯ’ļ ‘I was’||sa vȯ’ļd ‘you were’||ta vȯ’ļ ‘s/he was’||mēg vȯ’ļmõ ‘we were’||tēg vȯ’ļtõ ‘you (pl.) were’||ne vȯ’ļtõ ‘they were’|
|ma i’z ūo ‘I was not’||sa i’zt ūo ‘you were not’||ta i’z ūo ‘s/he was not’||mēg i’z ūomõ ‘we were not’||tēg i’zt ūotõ ‘you (pl.) were not’||ne i’zt ūotõ ‘they were not’|
|ma u’m vȯnd ‘I have been’||sa ūod vȯnd ‘you have been’||ta u’m vȯnd ‘s/he has been’||mēg ūomõ vȯnnõd ‘we have been’||tēg ūotõ vȯnnõd ‘you (pl.) have been)||ne attõ vȯnnõd ‘they have been’|
|ma ä’b ūo vȯnd ‘I have not been’||sa ä’d ūo vȯnd ‘you have not been’||ta ä’b ūo vȯnd ‘s/he has not been’||mēg ä’b ūomõ vȯnnõd ‘we have not been’||tēg ä’d ūotõ vȯnnõd ‘you (pl.) have not been’||ne ä’b ūotõ vȯnnõd ‘they have not been’|
līdõ ‘to be (in the future)’
|First person||ma līb ‘I will be’||mēg līmõ ‘we will be’||ma ä’b lī ‘I will not be’||mēg ä’b līmõ ‘we will not be’|
|Second person||sa līd ‘you will be’||tēg lītõ ‘you (pl.) will be’||sa ä’d lī ‘you will not be’||tēg ät lītõ ‘you (pl.) will not be’|
|Third person||ta līb ‘s/he will be’||ne lībõd ‘they will be’||ta ä’b lī ‘s/he will not be’||ne ä’b lītõ ‘they will not be’|
The table below (reproduced from Viitso & Ernštreits 2012:396–7 with the original Latvian labels translated by me) summarizes the endings of non-finite verb forms in Livonian.
Livonian Non-Finite Verb Forms (Viitso & Ernštreits 2012:396–7)
|Participle||Active||Present||-bõ -b -õb||-bõd -õbõd|
|Past||-nd -n -õn||-nõd -nd -õnd|
|Passive||Present||-dõb -tõb -õb||-dõbõd -tõbõd -õdõbõd|
|Past||-dõd -tõd -õd|
|Infinitive||-da -dõ -õ|
|Supine||Illative||-mõ -m -õm|
There are both postpositions and prepositions in Livonian. Many locative postpositions have three forms corresponding to the three-way distinction (towards/in/from) present in the locative noun cases. For example, alā ‘downward’, allõ ‘under’, aldõst ‘from underneath’. Postpositions such as these can also function as adverbs lending a perfective meaning to the verbs they occur with and also coloring their meaning. (e.g., pānda ‘to put’ vs. alā pānda ‘to put underneath’; kēratõ ‘to write’ vs. alā kēratõ ‘to sign’; etc.) Some examples of postpositions include allõ ‘under’ (tam allõ ‘under the oak tree’), jūs ‘by at’ (umblijiz jūs ‘by/at the seamstress’), pǟl ‘on’ (vie’d pǟl ‘on the water’), sizāl ‘inside’ (kougõl sizāl ‘inside the bread mixing bowl’), sōņõ ‘until, up to’ (mie’r sōņõ ‘up to the sea’). An example of a preposition is i’ļ ‘about’ (i’ļ sīe ‘about it’). All of the postpositions and the preposition in these examples take nouns in the genitive case. However, there are other adpositions, which take nouns in other cases.
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Kettunen, Lauri. 1925. Untersuchung über die livische Sprache, Phonetische Einführung, Sprachproben. Tartu, Estonia: E. K. Ü. “Postimehe” trükk.
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